The amount of compensatory sweating depends on the patient, the damage that the white rami communicans incurs, and the amount of cell body reorganization in the spinal cord after surgery.
Other potential complications include inadequate resection of the ganglia, gustatory sweating, pneumothorax, cardiac dysfunction, post-operative pain, and finally Horner’s syndrome secondary to resection of the stellate ganglion.

After severing the cervical sympathetic trunk, the cells of the cervical sympathetic ganglion undergo transneuronic degeneration
After severing the sympathetic trunk, the cells of its origin undergo complete disintegration within a year.

Saturday, August 1, 2009

Allostasis - a state of imbalance responsible for Autoimmune disorders

In general, enhancing the sympathetic tone decreases both T0-cell and NK cell functions but not the proliferation of splenic B cells (Dowdell and Whitacre, 2000). In contrast, chemical sympathectomy, although having varying results, does seem to increase the severity of autoimmune disorders (Dowdell and Whitacre, 2000)
As far as metabolism, catecholamines promote mobilization of fuel stores at time of stress and act synergistically with glucocorticoids to increased glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, and lipolysis but exert opposing effects of protein catabolism, as noted earlier. One important aspect is regulation of body temperature (Goldsttein and Eisenhofer, 2000) Epinephrine levels are also positively related to serum levels of HDL cholesterol and negatively related to triglycerines. However, perturbing the balance of activity of various mediators or metabolism and body weight regulation can lead to well-known metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes and obesity.

At the same time, increased sympathetic activitation and nerephinephrine release is elevated in hypertensive individuals and also higher levels of insulin, and there are indications that insulin further increases sympathetic activity in a vicious cycle (Arauz-Pacheco et al.,1996)

As a result of either local production, cytokines often enter the the circultion and can be detected in plasma samples. Sleep deprivation and psychological stress, such as public speaking, are reported to elevate inflammatory cytokine level in blood (Altemus et al., 2001) Circulting levels of a number of inflammatory cytokines are elevated in relation to viral and other infections and contirbute to the feeling of being sick, as well as sleepiness, wiht both direct and indirect effects on the central nervous system (Arkins et al., 2000; Obal and Kueger, 2000)

Inflammatory autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and type 1 diabetes, reflect an allostatic state that consists of at least three principal causes: genetic risk factors, (...) factors that contribute to the development of tolerance of self-antigens (...) and the hormonal mikieu that regulates adaptive immunes responses (Dowdell and Whitacre, 2000)

Allostasis, homeostasis and the costs of physiological adaptation

By Jay Schulkin
Cambridge University Press, 2004

Allostasis is the process of achieving stability, or homeostasis, through physiological or behavioral change. This can be carried out by means of alteration in HPA axis hormones, the autonomic nervous system, cytokines, or a number of other systems, and is generally adaptive in the short term [1]